What causes acinetobacter baumannii haemolyticus?

asked Apr 26, 2012 by newyorkresident2012 (120 points)
What causes acinetobacter baumannii haemolyticus?  Can it be caused by medications? If so which ones? How about antibiotics? Is it assoicated with sepsis or C-Diff? Is it  contagious? If so, by touching a person, such as wiping the sweat from their forehead?


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1 Answer

answered Oct 11, 2012 by anonymous

Acinetobacter are widely distributed bacteria in nature, and commonly occur in soil. They can survive on moist and dry surfaces, including in a hospital environment. Some strains have been isolated from foodstuffs. In drinking water, they have been shown to aggregate bacteria that otherwise do not form aggregates.
In immunocompromised individuals, several Acinetobacter can cause life-threatening infections. Such species also exhibit a relatively broad degree of antibiotic resistance.

Acinetobacter is frequently isolated in nosocomial infections, and is especially prevalent in intensive care units, where both sporadic cases as well as epidemic and endemic occurrence is common. A. baumannii is a frequent cause of nosocomial pneumonia, especially of late-onset ventilator associated pneumonia. It can cause various other infections including skin and wound infections, bacteremia, and meningitis, but A. lwoffi is mostly responsible for the latter. A. baumannii can survive on the human skin or dry surfaces for weeks.

Epidemiologic evidence indicates that Acinetobacter biofilms play a role in infectious diseases such as cystic fibrosis, periodontitis, bloodstream infections, and urinary tract infections, because of the bacteria's ability to colonize indwelling medical devices (such as catheters).

Acinetobacter species are innately resistant to many classes of antibiotics, including penicillin, chloramphenicol, and often aminoglycosides. Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been reported during therapy, which has also resulted in increased resistance to other drug classes mediated through active drug efflux. A dramatic increase in antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter strains has been reported by the CDC and the carbapenems are recognized as the gold-standard and treatment of last resort.

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