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A woodland ecosystem comsists of plants, and plants eaters. These  range from insects (grasshoppers, butterflies, leafhoppers) and other invertebrates such as earthworms and sowbugs, to small mammals like deer mice, tree squirrels, cottontail rabbits and porcupines. Examples of large woodland plant-eaters are white-tailed deer, mule deer and elk.

Next are meat-eating animals range in size from predatory insects such as assassin bugs and robber flies, other invertebrates such as orb-weaving spiders, to larger vertebrate animals. Small mammals like short-tailed shrews and weasels eat primarily rodents. Woodland reptiles including snakes such as timber rattlesnakes, copperheads and rat snakes also eat rodents. Forest-dwelling lizards such as northern fence lizards and ground skinks eat insects. Insectivorous amphibians like tree frogs, wood frogs, and various kinds of salamanders inhabit woodlands. Medium-sized mammals include bobcats and martens, cougars, wolves,great horned owls, long-eared owls, screech owls and barred owls; raptors such as Cooper's hawk, sharp-shinned hawk, northern goshawk hunt in forests. Hoary bats, red bats and silver-haired bats live in and among woodland trees.

There are also ominivores.

And A vital link in the ecosystem is filled by animals that clean up dead organic matter. Many insects subsist on rotting plant and animal material, such as fly larvae, dung beetles and carrion beetles. Among birds, vultures are the prime example of a scavenger. The black vulture nests in thicketed woodland habitats. American crows and common ravens will eat carrion, as will opossums, coyotes and feral wild pigs.


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